The Top 10 FAQs About Compressed Air – Fun Facts About Compressed Air

You’ve got questions and we’ve got answers! In this article, we’ll tell you everything you ever wanted to know about compressed air, and then some…

Here are the top 10 compressed air questions we’ve answered for you:

Let’s get started!

What is compressed air made of?

Compressed air is made of the same air you breathe in and out, but that air is compressed into a smaller size and kept under pressure. When you take atmospheric air and then physically force it into a smaller volume, the molecules take up less space and the air is compressed.

Atmospheric air and compressed air are both made up of:

  • 78% Nitrogen
  • 20-21% Oxygen
  • 1-2% water vapor, carbon dioxide & other gases

The “ingredients” in the air don’t change when it’s compressed—just the amount of space those molecules take up.

How is air compressed?

Air is compressed in two simple steps:

Step 1: Air is trapped in a cylinder, tank, or similar container
Step 2: The space in that tank becomes smaller, which forces the air molecules closer together

The now-compressed air remains trapped in this smaller state, waiting to expand again, until it’s ready for use.

The act of compressing air is easiest to picture with a reciprocating air compressor, where a piston literally pushes the air down in a cylinder. Here’s a great reference image from Encyclopedia Britannica:

Compressed-air

But pistons aren’t the only way to force air into a smaller space. There are numerous styles of air compressors on the market, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. For example, rotary screw air compressors use dual spinning screws to push air down and compress it:

air end for compressed air

You can read more about the differences between rotary screw and reciprocating air compressors here. Regardless of the mechanisms used, air is always compressed by taking atmospheric air and squishing it down so the molecules are condensed and pressurized.

What causes pressure in compressed air?

You know when you’re crammed in a busy elevator, the door suddenly opens, and everybody rushes out and spreads apart? Compressed air basically does the same thing. While the molecules in compressed air can be trapped in a smaller space, they don’t necessarily want to be, and they will spread apart as quickly as possible the first second they are able to. That’s what causes pressure.

Atmospheric air has one bar of pressure but can be forced up to 6004 PSI (414 bar) of pressure when compressed into a smaller state. Exactly how pressurized compressed air becomes is determined by science.

Air pressure is explained by three scientific laws:

  • The First Law of Thermodynamics tells us that an increase in pressure equals a rise in heat and that compressing air creates a proportional increase in heat.
  • Boyle’s Law explains that if a volume of air halves during compression, then the pressure is doubled.
  • Charles’ Law states that the volume of air changes in direct proportion to the temperature.

Collectively, these three laws explain that pressure, volume, and temperature are proportional. If you change one variable, then one or two of the others will also change, according to this equation:

pressure-law

When applying this formula to an air compressor, air volume and air pressure can be controlled and increased as needed. Compressed air can be used in pressure ranges from 14 PSI to 6004 PSI (1 to 414 bar) at flow rates from as little as 3.5 CFM (0.1m3) cubic feet per minute) and up.

Fortunately, most people have no reason to memorize or use this formula. Instead, just set your air compressor to your desired pressure and let science take care of the rest.

Why is compressed air hot?

Compressed air is hot because the air molecules are physically forced closer together during compression, which causes the molecules to move quickly; this rapid molecule movement generates heat.

However, the compressed air that leaves an air compressor is typically not as hot as the air inside the compression chamber. Hot air can be dangerous, and heat also increases the amount of water in the air stream, so most air compressor designs include aftercoolers to reduce the temperature of the compressed air.

The compressed air that leaves an air compressor system can be hundreds or even thousands of degrees, depending on the application.

What is compressed air used for?

Compressed air can be used in one of two ways:

  • As an energy source
  • As blowing air (“active air”)

When used as an energy source, compressed air can power air tools and production equipment. These tools and equipment are used in countless applications across dozens of industries, including construction, tire service, mechanical repair, maintenance, factory production, industrial processes, and vehicle safety systems. Even roller coasters use compressed air!

roller coaster

Active air is used when a steady stream of air is needed for a task. A couple fairly literal applications for active air is aeration and medical breathing air but tons of industries, ranging from pharmaceutical and chemical companies to food and beverage plants, use compressed air in their production of goods and services.

What are the benefits of compressing air?

Compressed air is a popular energy source for many, many reasons. The main benefits of using air compressors and compressed air are:

  • Improved productivity
  • Cheap power source
  • Safe & easy to use
  • Energy efficient
  • Low operating costs
  • Versatile tools & applications
  • Compact, light & easy to move
  • Lower theft rates

If you need more convincing than that, you can find out why VMAC’s existing customers love compressed air here.

Why do we need compressed air?

Compressed air can be described as the fourth utility. Although not as ubiquitous as electricity, petroleum products or gas, air that’s compressed plays a fundamental part in powering our modern world. It plays a vital part in most modern manufacturing processes and modern civilization.

Although you may not realize it, most products we use today were made using compressed air at some point in the process. In fact, compressed air accounts for about 10% of the global energy currently used in industry.

The main difference between compressed air and other power sources is that users can easily generate their own air and have a choice in the way that air is generated. Air compressors can accommodate a lot of different needs. Many applications in different environments are dependent on pneumatic air, and air compressors can be configured (with the right accessories) to compress air to a specific pressure, at a certain flow, and of the right quality.

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Is compressed air safe?

As far as energy sources go, compressed air is clean, safe, simple and efficient. There are no dangerous exhaust fumes or other harmful by-products when compressed air is used as a utility. It is a non-combustible, non-polluting utility.

However, compressed air can be dangerous when used improperly or if air receiver tanks aren’t properly maintained. Therefore, operators should always follow the guidelines set by manufacturers.

Can compressed air explode?

It is possible for an air receiver tank holding compressed air to explode. But it’s extremely rare and tends to occur when operators don’t look after their air receiver tank.

The leading cause of air compressor tank explosions is corrosion. When operators don’t drain the water that accumulates in their tank, the water can cause corrosion, weakening the tank until the compressed air breaks it open.

The second common cause of an air tank explosion is poorly manufactured products or manufacturing defects. For example, an air receiver tank without a proper pressure relief valve might become over-pressurized and explode from that. Working with a reputable air receiver tank manufacturer should prevent these types of explosions from occurring.

Explosions & Canned Air

Keep in mind that canned air, those small cans of compressed air used to clean electronics and computer equipment, is not the same thing as true compressed air. Canned air is a highly flammable chemical mixture, which has a higher chance of causing an explosion.

The Backyard Scientist has a pretty cool YouTube video that shows the impressive explosive reaction between hot water and difluoroethane, the chemical often found in canned air:

But again, that’s not the true kind of compressed air that comes from an air compressor.

Horror stories and YouTube distractions aside, it’s very unlikely that compressed air will cause an air receiver tank to explode. Tanks that are properly drained and maintained pose very little risk to their operators.

Can compressed air kill you?

Compressed air is safe when used properly. However, messing around with compressed air or using it in unconventional ways can be dangerous and even deadly.

Here are a few ways that compressed air can kill or seriously injure a person:

  • Compressed air blown into the skin can obstruct an artery and result in an embolism
  • Inhaled compressed air can rupture your lungs or esophagus
  • Compressed air blown into the ear can rupture eardrums and cause brain damage
  • Compressed air can blow eyes out of their sockets

Although all these occurrences are extremely rare, they are also possible. There is literally no reason to point compressed air at a person, including yourself, which makes these injuries entirely preventable. Don’t clean your clothes, or blow dust around, or hit your buddy with compressed air as a joke, and you’ll be perfectly safe.

Canned air can also kill people when inhaled or ingested. However, it’s the chemicals in the canned air that are the threat, not the air itself. It’s never a great idea to inhale chemicals.

So, yes, compressed air and canned air can both kill you, but only if you’re using them improperly.

Want to keep learning? Check out our Guide to Rotary Screw Air Compressors!

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Compressed Air Filtering Basics – Contaminants, Filters & More!

Take a deep breath. Breathe out. Breathe in… Now, let’s talk about all the contaminants in that air you’re breathing!

Atmospheric air is naturally contaminated. In addition to oxygen, air also contains water vapor, dust and dirt, and a medley of other filthy particles depending on the surrounding environment. The average metropolitan area, for example, contains approximately 4 million dirt particles per cubic foot of air.

When air is compressed, some of those contaminants need to be filtered out. Contaminated atmospheric air can cause damage to air compressors and air tools, and isn’t acceptable for certain medical and industrial applications.

But atmospheric air isn’t the only source of contamination for compressed air. Air compressors contribute their own share of pollution from wear particles and, if the compressor is oil-lubricated, carbonized compressor lubricant.

Between atmospheric air contamination and air compressor system contamination, there’s a lot of particles dirtying up our compressed air. Fortunately, we have compressed air filtering to save the day.

A Bit of Dirt Never Hurt Anyone…

Don’t worry about that dirty air you’re breathing. Your lungs act as your body’s filtration system, removing contaminants after they’re inhaled. Air compressor systems obviously don’t have lungs, but they do filter out air contaminants in other ways. Better still, a little contamination is usually okay.

Contaminated particles are measured in microns. The bigger the particle, the bigger the micron. Most fine particle tests use 0.3 micron as the standard to measure liquid or solid particle filtration. If a filter tested on this particle size proves to be 100 % efficient, then it’s fairly safe to say this filter can remove any particle above this size.

Many compressed air applications can handle contamination levels well above 0.3 microns. Tire service, construction, and most other mobile air compressor applications tend to tolerate quite a bit of contamination without problem. Operators with these types of jobs can get away with a more basic filtration system, such as an intake filter, which eliminates contaminants in the 30 to 40 micron range.

Industrial air compressor applications tend to be less tolerant of contamination than mobile applications and up to 80 % of industrial contamination is smaller than 2 microns. Therefore, many industrial air compressors need better filtration than mobile air compressors. Industrial air compressor systems often utilize advanced dry particulate and coalescing filters that can clean air down to 0.01 microns. For applications that require super-clean air for OSHA purposes, an additional charcoal activated filter may also be used.

However, these industrial applications are the exception. Outside of massive factories and industrial enterprises, most people use mobile-style air compressors that can tolerate quite a bit of contaminants and don’t need to think twice about their air compressor’s filtration capabilities.

What Contaminants Are In Compressed Air?

Now that you realize just how contaminated our air is, let’s talk about what it’s contaminated with.

Compressed air contains three types of contaminants:

  • Dry particulates
  • Vapors
  • Aerosols

Dry particulates are exactly what they sound like: dirt and other tiny solid particles. Vapors are the gas-forms of particles that condense into liquids at lower temperatures—for example, water. (The gas state is what allows these “liquids” to exist in air.) Meanwhile, aerosols are very fine solid particles that get trapped in air or gas, becoming suspended. Airborne dust is one familiar example of an aerosol.

Each type of contaminant has its own unique characteristics and properties, requiring their own filtration methods.

There are two primary types of filtration that are used in compressed air systems:

  1. Dry Particulate Filtration
  2. Vapor & Aerosol Filtration

In the next couple sections of this article, we’ll talk about these filtration types and the filters used to eliminate dry particulates, vapors, and aerosols.

The Principles of Dry Particulate Air Filtration

Here’s where we get technical. We already know that most contamination in a compressed air system can be removed simply by filtration. However, it’s important that your air compressor systems use the correct type of filtration for the particles being filtered.

Dry particulate filters rely on three principles to separate contaminants from the air:

  • Direct interception
  • Inertial impact
  • Diffusion & Brownian movement

Direct interception affects the larger particles in an air stream, which are literally sieved out through a filter.

Inertial impact occurs when a particle traveling in an air stream is eventually unable to negotiate the torturous path between the filter fibers and cannot change direction as quickly as the air stream. The contaminants then collide with a fiber and become attached to it.

Diffusion or Brownian movement affects fine particles. With diffusion, small particles merge with other gas particles and begin to move erratically. This erratic movement is called Brownian movement. As these particles move separately from the compressed air flow, they are more likely to become trapped in the filter.

Air Filtering though diffusion

All three of these principles work together in a dry particulate filter to capture and trap contaminants from the compressed air.

If you’re interested in reading more about the principles and physics behind air filtration, check out this “Mechanism of Filtration For High Efficiency Fibrous Filters” report by TSI.

Vapor & Aerosol Filtration for Compressed Air

Vapors and aerosols slip past dry particulate filters, which may require their own filtration systems. In this case, there are two options that may be utilized:

  • Coalescing
  • Adsorption

Coalescing filters trap moisture and oil. The compressed air enters through the inlet port and travels down into the filter, passing through a filter media before it leaves through the discharge port. Moisture and oil droplets bond together during this process, forming larger droplets that then drip into a moisture trap below.

filter-element

Coalescing filters are commonly used in oil-injected air compressors, such as rotary screw air compressors. In VMAC systems, these filtration methods include a couple types of dry particulate filters, as well as a coalescing filter.

Adsorption filters help eliminate vapors and lubricants, using activated charcoal or similar chemicals to bond with the vapor molecules. Adsorption comes into play when vapors must also be eliminated from a system. Adsorption filters are typically only used in specific industrial applications.

Filtration Systems of Rotary Screw Air Compressors

Reciprocating air compressors that don’t use oil can often get away with just a dry particulate filter. That’s because the contaminants in atmospheric air are negligible for most construction and automotive applications, travelling through the air compressor without causing much problem.

However, oil-injected rotary screw air compressors require additional levels of filtration. The oil used to lubricate the rotors is necessary for this style of air compressor, but that same oil needs to be cleaned and separated from the air.

Therefore, rotary screw air compressors require two types of filtration systems:

  • Dry particulate filters
  • Coalescing filters

In a typical VMAC air compressor, you’ll find both types of filters throughout the system:

  1. Air filter: atmospheric air entering the system goes through a dry particulate air filter.
  2. Coalescing filter: Air that leaves the rotors, now mixed with oil, goes through a coalescing filter, which separates the oil from the clean air. The oil gets recirculated while the air exits the system.
  3. Oil filter: The separated oil then goes through the oil filter, which is another dry particulate filter that separates particles from the oil.filters

It’s these same filters that occasionally need to be replaced and will be included with VMAC’s service kits. Replacing the air filter, oil filter and coalescing filter ensures the air compressors continue to trap contaminants and keeps your air compressor in tip-top shape.

Air Tool Pressure + 5 Reasons To Use The Right PSI For Air Tools

If your air tools struggle to live out their warranty or require more maintenance than the manufacturer’s guidelines state, there’s a good chance you are using too much air pressure. This is extremely common and many service operators over-pressurize their pneumatic tools as a standard operating procedure.

The assumption is you get more power out of a tool if you apply more pressure. While this is true some of the time, it doesn’t apply all of the time and—in almost all cases—leads to tool breakage or worse…

In this article, we’ve put together a list of reasons you should always use the proper pressure for your air tools:

5. Reduce Expensive Tool Repairs

Using too much pressure can cause your air tools to wear out or break a lot sooner than they should. Here are the most common pneumatic tool repairs caused by excessive air pressure:

Blown seals: The more pressure you use, the bigger the opportunity for blown seals. You might as well use your shop-vac to suck the extra cash out of your pockets if you don’t protect yourself from blown seals because they result in VERY expensive repair bills.

Anvil breakage: There couldn’t be a better example of “cutting off your nose to spite your face” than anvil breakage, and it’s far too common. Guys apply more pressure to their impact wrench to get more torque, which works. Everyone is happy, the job gets done faster. But then the anvil sees higher stresses and can crack or break and the tool is down for repairs, wasting any time you saved with extra torque and resulting in significant costs for repairs.

Bearing failure: In addition to blown seals and anvil breakage, using too much pressure is one of the most direct causes of bearing failure. If you’ve worked with air tools for awhile, you know bearing failure is an expensive repair and you probably also know that if the bearings go, you already have many more damaged parts to repair. It’s not a good situation!

Vane motor breakdowns: As little as 20 psi of excessive pressure in a vane motor system can half the life of an air tool. Most tools are rated at 90 or 100 psi, so using 120 psi regularly ensures you will be replacing expensive air tools in half the time you should have to.

4. Maintain Your Tools’ Efficiency

In many cases, a broken tool doesn’t happen in an instant. Instead, tools wear down over time until they reach a point of failure. The more a tool is worn down, the less efficient seals and other components become, even if it’s still working. This results in leaked air, which essentially means the tool needs even more air to run than it normally would.

By using the right pressure for your tools, you reduce wear and improve tool efficiency. If you care about getting the best performance out of your tools, stop using too much pressure.

3. Stop Overpaying For New Tools

Tools that break or fail and can’t be repaired will need to be replaced, and we don’t need to tell you that new tool costs add up quickly! It’s an unnecessary expense that could have been reinvested elsewhere.

Consider this: when you buy an air tool from a manufacturer or dealer, they give you a price, and you either agree to pay the price or negotiate a discount. You never ask them to take more money from you. Yet, if you don’t take proper care of your air tools, you might as well do exactly that.

Treat your tools with respect and save your money for better purchases.

2. Prevent Dangerous Accidents

Let’s put the financial impacts aside because you won’t be thinking about expenses when you or one of your employees suffers a devastating or fatal injury. It’s easy to shrug off safety regulations and assume a serious injury would never happen to you or your team, but pressure safety warnings exist in manufacturers’ guidelines for a reason.

We’ve heard stories about tool technicians being killed when an over-pressured grinder explodes, because it’s operating at speeds much higher than the manufacturer’s safety ratings. You don’t want your team to be the one that proves these urban legends are true.

But even if the stories are false, the pneumatic tool manufacturers are concerned enough to include pressure rating warnings in their manuals. For example, here’s what Central Pneumatic says in their ¼” air angle die grinder manual:

“Over pressurizing the tool may cause bursting, abnormal operation, breakage of the tool or serious injury to persons. Use only clean, dry, regulated compressed air at the rated pressure or within the rated pressure range as marked on the tool. Always verify prior to using the tool that the air source has been adjusted to the rated air pressure or within the rated air-pressure range.”

Protect your team and your business by keeping everyone safe. Follow the pressure guidelines and you can prevent serious consequences.

1. Lower Your Fuel Consumption

Last but possibly not least, using the proper pressure will lower your fuel consumption.

The higher the pressure, the higher the volume of air that’s consumed. This is a problem because higher air volumes require more energy, which means you are spending a lot of extra horsepower on wasted air. Further, higher horsepower equals higher fuel consumption, which increases operating costs and throws low emission targets in the trash.

The Real Reasons Your Tools Aren’t Performing

Manufacturing engineers create and test tools using the same psi ranges they publish in the tools’ manuals. If your tool isn’t performing as well as you think it should, the pressure rating isn’t the problem. Instead of cranking up the pressure, take the following steps:

  1. Reflect on your expectations: Is it possible that you simply want a tool that performs better than it’s supposed to? If so, it may be time to consider why you want more power and whether it’s something you really need…
  2. Check the power management switch: If your tool has a power management switch, you wouldn’t be the first person to overlook it. Double-check whether your tool has this switch and ensure it’s on the proper setting.
  3. Check the pressure at the tool: Attach a pressure gauge between the end of your hose and your air tool to confirm whether the air pressure is at the maximum recommended pressure. Each air compressor design is different, and some systems can lose pressure before the air reaches the tool. If the air is losing pressure before it meets the tool, you can try turning up the pressure a bit, but only until it reaches the manufacturer’s psi recommendation.
  4. Check the hose size: A hose that’s too small can cause pressure drops that are easily remedied by an upgrade. Make sure you’re using the right hose size for your application. We talk more about how hose size impacts airflow in this article.
  5. Check the size of everything else: Hoses aren’t the only air compressor component that might be too small. Also check the size of your connectors, fittings, filters, regulators, and lubricators, and ensure they are big enough to handle the task at hand.
  6. Confirm the air compressor’s CFM: An air tool needs the right psi and the right CFM to operate properly. Double-check that the CFM capabilities of your air compressor match the needs of your tools. You can learn more about the CFM needs for your air tools here.
  7. Consider your air compressor type: A reciprocating air compressor has to build up air and then quickly loses pressure. But if you require higher pressure because you’re trying to hit hard and fast to beat the clock, your air compressor type is likely the problem. Instead, upgrade to a rotary screw air compressor that can maintain CFM and PSI for significant periods of time. Find out more about rotary screw vs. reciprocating air compressors here.
  8. Call the tool manufacturer: If everything above checks out, call the manufacturer. Their support team will be able to help you troubleshoot performance issues with your tool.
  9. Upgrade your tool: If you’ve gone through the list above and your tool isn’t getting the job done, it’s likely time for an upgrade. Tools that have enough air and are powerful enough for a job will work properly and efficiently at their recommended psi setting. If your tool isn’t performing under the proper conditions, you need a better tool.

One last tip—don’t use sound when determining if a tool is working. We’ve met operators who think their tool or air compressor is too weak because their tools get quieter after the air has run for a few seconds, even when the tools are operating just fine! Instead of listening, look at how the tool is performing to determine whether it gets the job done in a normal amount of time.

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Use The Proper Pressure For Your Air Tools

At the end of the day, too much pressure for your air tools can be a costly mistake. From equipment failure and repair costs to health and safety risks for your team, there are a lot of reasons you should simply use the right pressure.

It’s unlikely all the terrible things in this article will happen to your team and equipment if you use too much pressure. However, it’s probable you’ll encounter at least some of the issues, including the frustration that goes along with them.

By contrast, eliminating the issues caused by too much pressure is easy to do. Use the proper pressure for your air tools and rest assured you’re getting the most out of your tools.

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Fanelli Equipment Repair Upgrades to VMAC DTM70-H

Located in Hilmar, CA is Fanelli Equipment Repair. Owned by Phil Fanelli, this company has been operating in the Central Valley area for over 12 years, repairing and servicing all types of Caterpillar equipment, including landfill, recycling, and compost equipment for waste management companies, as well as servicing equipment used in the dairy industry.

Phil Fanelli has successfully grown his equipment repair business to include seven service trucks, each which puts on thousands of operating hours and up to 50,000 miles every year. “I work my trucks hard, and so I rotate through them every five years, to ensure there’s no downtime,” says Fanelli. “Because of this, I expect any piece of equipment to last me five years as well.”

Up until recently, Phil’s service truck was equipped with a reciprocating air compressor. This reciprocating air compressor resulted in a lot of challenges, the first and foremost being weight. The compressor was terribly heavy on his truck, which at the time was a Peterbilt with a 14-foot service body. Phil also found himself waiting for compressed air to be produced, resulting in downtime as his compressor tried to catch up to him. This slowed down his work.

When it was time to bring in a new service truck to the fleet, Phil seized the opportunity to “right-size” his truck. Because he’s often travelling to visit his technicians on different job sites, he chose to downsize to a Ford F550 truck. He also needed to address the weight and air supply concerns associated with reciprocating compressors. For this truck build and upfit, he went straight to Spencer Hinson, owner and GM of Lodi Truck and Equipment, located in West Sacramento.

“I’ve been getting Spencer at Lodi to build my trucks for over 10 years now, and I wouldn’t go anywhere else,” says Phil. “I go in, tell him what I want, and he keeps me involved in every step of the build.”

At first, Phil was interested in an UNDERHOOD™ 70 air compressor, which fits neatly in the engine compartment of the truck, supplies up to 70 CFM of air continuously, and weighs just 150 lbs, saving up to 260 lbs. But when it was time to start the truck build, Spencer recommended a different product: the newly released VMAC DTM70-H, a direct-transmission mounted PTO driven air compressor with hydraulic pump. The DTM70-H is the best choice for customers like Phil who are concerned with saving weight on their service truck, and who also need compressed air and hydraulic power at the same time.

“Spencer knows I’m really concerned about weight. It seems like I’m always overloaded, and he thought this set up would be the best fit,” explains Fanelli. And the weight savings were significant: “The VMAC DTM70-H saved 500 lbs, which is a big deal when you’re trying to set up an F550. With these weight savings, it was the only way to go. We were looking at aluminum doors and aluminum fuel tanks, but to save 500 lbs with one change tFinelli-VMACo the DTM70-H was a no-brainer.”

The VMAC DTM70-H weighs only 180 lbs, which frees up hundreds of pounds of weight, and allows customers like Phil to downsize their trucks, and at the same time load the truck up with more supplies. “I added more tools, a drawer set, tool boxes, and an oil tank, thanks to the weight savings,” says Fanelli.

It’s been several months since Phil picked up his new F550 truck from Lodi, and he’s been using the DTM70-H to power his air tools and crane simultaneously. Spencer’s expertise and recommendation was key in this new truck build and was exactly what Phil needed. “When I got the truck, it was show room quality, detailed, everything worked. It was exactly the way I wanted it.” And as for the DTM70-H? “It’s lightweight, which is what I needed, but it also produces the air I need, when I need it. It’s bulletproof.”

Subscribe to the VMAC blog to continue reading about Fanelli Equipment Repair’s experience with the VMAC DTM70-H, and to learn more about Lodi Truck & Equipment, located in West Sacramento, CA.

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